Naive Realism What Lee Ross calls naïve realism:

“Naïve realism is the conviction that one sees the world as it is and that when people don’t see it in a similar way, it is they that do not see the world for what it is. Ross characterized naïve realism as “a dangerous but unavoidable conviction about perception and reality”. The danger of naïve realism is that while humans are good in recognizing that other people and their opinions have been shaped and influenced by their life experiences and particular dogmas, we are far less adept at recognizing the influence our own experiences and dogmas have on ourselves and opinions. We fail to recognize the bias in ourselves that we are so good in picking out in others.”

Certainty is at the core of the fundamentalist, whether he be on the right or on the left. All gall is divided into two parts:

1. Presuppositions not completely researched
2. Shrill advocacy.

How to recognize gall:

1. Opinions stated as fact
2. Little or no attempt to explain grounds
3 No attempt to study contary arguments
4. Opposers are always "them."
5. Motivations of opposers are assumed to be either evil or ignorant.
6. Ad hominem argumentations are perfectly valid

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